Tuesday, April 24, 2007

College Tuition

College Tuition

Every fall U.S. News and World Report does its annual review of America's Colleges. Their regular listing of information about America's colleges includes current tuition and fees. This and other college guides are excellent sources of tuition information but college guides are publishing what is really the sticker price. Your tuition could be quite different; it depends on your opportunities for bargaining.

When it comes to tuition the most important schools to watch are the state's flagship public universites. In Virginia, that is the University of Virginia; in Michigan it is the University of Michigan; in California it is UC Berkeley. Each state has at least one well respected state supported university. Every state's best students apply to these schools even though they are likely to apply to other colleges, both public and private. At the University of Virginia, 2006-2007 full time tuition for undergraduate students is $7,845.00. It is well below private colleges, and that includes private colleges with and without UVA's reputation of academic excellence.

Private schools must have higher tuition than UVA to meet their budgets, but they are at a disadvantage to get the best student's when they can decide to attend UVA at much lower tuition. To attract the kinds of students that can attend UVA, private colleges are often willing to offer discounted tuition to these students. Applicants who apply to private colleges are now routinely asked to list other colleges where they have applied. For the high gpa student it is an excellent idea to answer that question and include their state's flagship university. Private colleges want some students with the highest grades to keep up their reputation, which makes it likely they will offer a combination of options that sound like scholarships or grants, but amounts to a tuition cut. If they want someone enough, their package offer will reduce tuition to roughly the same amount as the best public colleges. They still accept other students with good academic records, but they do not offer much in the way of discounts for those with a 3 or 3.25 grade point average and without a number of AP courses.

The reality of competition for students in today's college market makes the flagship state colleges especially important in determining yearly tuition changes for all of America's colleges and Universities. For the renowned private colleges - Harvard, Yale, Princeton - they have enough applicants with the highest academic records that they can do whatever they want in offering tuition discounts. For the many fine private colleges without national name recognition there are not enough of the academic high achievers to go around and they literally have to compete for the best students. Because these colleges will try to match tuition at UVA for Virginia students, higher tuition at UVA and similar state universities allows private colleges to increase their tuition and decrease their discounts.

The importance of the flagship college shows up in a comparison of tuition for UVA and the College of William and Mary compared to the other state colleges in Virginia. The University of Virginia and the College of William and Mary are always toward the top of state tuition ranges. Both of these colleges have tuition above $7,000 a year in 2006. The State Council of Higher Education for Virginia website lists William and Mary tuition at $8,490, but the Univerity of Mary Washington tuition is $6,084 and George Mason University is listed at $6,408. The other state colleges keep their tuition below UVA and William and Mary by $1,000 and maybe a little more. All the Virginia colleges employ faculty from the same pool of available Ph.D's,and it is unfair to conclude that one of Virginia's colleges really offers better courses or classes than another, but the public perception is that UVA and William and Mary are the academic allstars of Virginia Colleges. For the other state colleges to have a chance to get some of the best applicants, which they certainly do, they need to offer tuition a little less than the flagship colleges. This means that tuition increases at UVA and William and Mary give room for tuition increases at the other state colleges, but still allows for the continued tuition difference of $1,000 or a little more.

In sum, Tuition changes at the University of Virginia and other flagship state universities is a signal of tuition changes for all of America's colleges.

Wednesday, April 11, 2007

Service Jobs - Professional, Scientific, Technical

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

The North American Industry Classification Manual defines the Professional, Scientific and Technical Services sector as “establishments that specialize in performing professional, scientific and technical activities for others.” Lucky for us they go on to explain that establishments in this sector use processes where human capital is the major input. “Establishments rely on employee skills and knowledge to deliver expertise to clients.” In 2012 there were 7.89 million jobs in professional, scientific and technical services.

Most of the professional occupations that require specialized degree training have employment somewhere among these services, although teaching and medicine are not in this sector. Architecture and Engineering Services establishments employ many architects and engineers and some other professional occupations like surveyor. The close association between architectural services and architects makes it easy to forget the one is a firm selling a service and the other is a person with a career and an occupation. It is the same way for legal services and lawyers; computer design services and computer software engineers. Other types of professional service establishments are associated with other professional occupations: accountants, management consultants, graphic designers, interior designers, life science researchers, physical science researchers, veterinarians and others.

Professional service employment has been expanding at faster rates than national employment generally going back to 1990. Part of the increase of jobs in these sectors results from the decline in manufacturing that need professional services. For example, manufacturing needs engineers but the decline of manufacturing puts pressure on engineers to move into professional service firms and sell services to contracting clients rather than perform engineering services as employees of manufacturing firms.

The Big Four of Professional Services

Establishments doing computer systems design services, architecture and engineering services, legal services and management consulting services all have over a million jobs. Computer systems design and related services is the biggest employer with 1.62 million jobs in 2012, but jobs have more than tripled since 1990 when employment was only 410 thousand.

Architecture and engineering services was the biggest of the professional services until 2008, but two years of decline leaves it in second place among professional services with 1.323 million jobs in 2012. About 65 percent of architects and landscape architects work in this sector, but only around a third of engineering jobs are in engineering firms. The largest share of engineers continues to work in the manufacturing industry. Because of the manufacturing decline more engineers are finding jobs in this sector.

Legal service jobs are growing at a slower rate than the national average which has dropped them into a third place tie with management consulting in professional service jobs. People would appreciate lawyers more if they would think about the different legal specialties: bankruptcy, divorce, crime, personal injury, medical malpractice. As we can see many lawyers spend their professional life in the middle of somebody else’s argument. Bickering, wrangling, hectoring fill their days.

Arguments and other legal business employed 1.12 million in the legal services sector in 2012. An average of 30 percent of the jobs at legal services firms are actually lawyers, which is about 370 thousand lawyers in legal services firms. Some of the bigger firms creep up to 40 percent lawyers, but 30 percent is average. Other lawyers work for business and government and another large group is classified as self employed and therefore not part of establishment data.

Management consulting employment has tripled since 1990 with a growth rate three times the national average. It was just behind legal services in 2008 with a million jobs, but now it has 1.12 million jobs the same as legal services.

Management analyst is by far the most important professional occupation in management consulting with 139.7 thousand jobs and a higher growth rate than national employment. Other professionals like accountant, computer programmers, business operations specialists work here but they typically have a smaller share of the jobs.

The manual of Standard Occupational Classifications describes management analysts as people who “Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplifications and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively.”

Accounting, Bookkeeping, Tax Preparation and Payroll Services

Accounting, bookkeeping, tax preparation and payroll services firms have 912.7 thousand jobs with 410.1 thousand of the jobs in specialized CPA firms. CPA jobs at accounting firms are growing but jobs at specialized tax preparation and payroll service firms are growing faster, much faster.

Tax preparation firms like H & R Block go into this sub-sector so that tax preparation gets counted as professional employment even though tax preparation firms typically run their own training programs and Certified Public Accountants are not necessary. Having employees complicates finances and now payroll processing firms are available to do payroll processing. Other types of clerical or detail work may go along with tax preparation and payroll processing, but these firms do not offer the services of CPA’s. Employment at non-CPA firms is now more than CPA firms.

The Smaller Four

Scientific Research services employed 637.8 thousand in 2012. Over 90 percent of this employment is in physical, engineering and life sciences research with humanities and social science research the rest. The professional jobs tend to require a master’s degree or Ph.D. in specialized work like chemistry, microbiology, or biophysics. Research services have more occupations requiring doctorate degrees than any of the other professional, scientific, and technical services industries. There are also a number of technician jobs that require at least an associate’s degree, but graduate degrees are necessary for much of the work.

The sector advertising and related services includes public relations agencies and media representatives in addition to firms creating and conducting advertising campaigns. Just over 429.5 thousand worked here in 2012. Advertising jobs overlap with many of the same occupations as publishing and broadcasting, but also specialized design mentioned below, with art and design jobs as multimedia artists, graphic designers, writers and authors.

Specialized design services employed 116.2 thousand in 2012 with most of their professional employment as graphic designers with 25,140 jobs and interior designers 16,250 jobs. Graphic designers need computer skills to go with creative skills to produce appealing and attracting layout for print media. Industrial designers help in the development of products that meet customer needs. Products vary from children’s toys, home appliances, medical equipment and similar products.

The well known categories of professional services are behind us. The few smaller services are bundled into a category, other. The biggest of these remainders in terms of employment is veterinary services with 306.1 thousand jobs. That figure is up from 177.5 thousand in 1990. Staffing at veterinary service firms shows 72 percent of jobs as veterinarians, veterinary technicians, veterinary assistants and non-farm animal caretakers.

Another 303.4 thousand are employed in professional loose ends: 106 thousand jobs in market research, polling and public opinion firms, 68.1 thousand jobs in photographic service firms which employ more than 36.9 thousand professional photographers. A few thousand more jobs at appraisal firms, arbitration services, and weather services round out the professional jobs in these sub sectors.

Total the career employment needing college degree skills in all the professional, scientific and technical services industries and it comes to 3.9 million jobs. These are jobs that typically require at least baccalaureate degree training for entry, but time, and on-the-job experience helps to perfect and enhance entry skills. Developing new skills and the chance for advancement go with these professional jobs. Lawyer, programmer, network administrator, systems analyst, architect, engineer, surveyor, accountant, management analyst, graphic designer, writer, scientific researcher, veterinarian, photographer are all important jobs in professional services.

Professional services jobs requiring college degree skills make up 48.3 percent of all jobs in professional services. Other jobs are jobs supporting the work sold to clients. For example, Office and Administrative Support occupations average 21.5 percent across all professional services. These are the jobs like receptionist, office clerk and secretary that make up office work in all industries as well as service providing industries. Managerial positions average seven percent of staffing at professional, scientific and technical firms.

Remember that education has 8.1 million career and professional jobs, but only 3.7 million here. However, professional services have the second highest number of jobs requiring college degree skills of any of the service industries. None of health care, information services, finance and insurance services have as many college degree jobs as either professional services or education. All levels of government, federal, state and local, have many jobs requiring college degree skills, but government jobs outside of education do not have as many professional jobs as either education or professional services.

Professional services have 7.89 million jobs. Combining education and professional services employment brings us to 22.5 million services jobs. With a total of 115.3 million service jobs we’ve got 92.8 million more service jobs to fill, but not to worry, we have 16 other sub sectors of services and service employment. There are jobs in health care, finance and insurance and information services among them.


Saturday, April 7, 2007

Education Services

Education Services

Long ago Americans decided to have a system of mass education financed with public funds. It was a smart choice. No society has ever managed to attain high literacy rates without publicly supported compulsory education. This smart choice also means millions of professional college trained service jobs. The educational services industry has 14.6 million jobs; that is teaching and all the other jobs at public and private schools as well as trade schools, training academies, tutoring and educational support. Teaching positions in all the public and private schools, and church related schools and preschools total 4.3 million. Education jobs in public and private elementary and secondary schools tend to go up with population growth and do not fluctuate as much with the business cycle as other jobs.

Since teachers have to have college degrees to get certification, teaching provides a double employment benefit. It delays entry into the workforce and also creates additional jobs in college teaching and administration. College teaching has a little over 1.5 million additional faculty jobs. Earlier or younger job seeking would permanently raise the size of the civilian workforce and put significant pressure on the country to meet even higher job requirements. Having people stay in school stimulates spending and teaching employment while reducing the nation's job requirements. Help create jobs, get education.

The median salary for elementary teachers was $53,400 in May 2012, the median salary being in the middle with half above and half below the median. Median salary for middle school teachers is $53,430; for secondary teachers is $55,050. These amounts are less than median salary for registered nurse, dental hygienist, medical sonographer, computer programmer, personal financial advisors, credit analyst, construction manager, air traffic controllers and quite a few more. Salaries adjusted for inflation are up modestly compared to 2006. Salaries in education are modest if compared to other categories of employment.

Teaching an hour in the classroom is at least another hour figuring out what to do and how to make it work. Even though teaching assistants earn barely half a teachers salary it is not unusual for teachers who need more time at home with their families to take a 50 percent pay cut and work for several years as assistants. After all assistants are not responsible for preparing classes and do not have to do crowd control. Teaching assistants work 8:30 to 3:30; teachers have to work twice that much.

Phrasing in teacher contracts assures long work hours. “Teacher shall perform such duties as deemed necessary, shall attend all assigned meetings, shall be present at school during school hours, shall be present at school or other location outside school hours as directed in connection with school events or activities.” Teacher can be asked to come an hour early to meet with the principal and a disgruntled parent and then stay for a collaborative team meeting from 3:30 to 5:30 PM and then prepare for next day’s classes and then update their web page after that. Computers mean faster work, but also more work.

Teaching has the highest total and highest percentage of employment requiring college degree skills of all of service industry employment in any sector of the United States economy. Almost 8.1 million jobs and 63.6 percent of educational employment needs college degree skills, meaning it requires a BA degree or higher to qualify. No other service industry has this many professional jobs. The total includes all the teaching jobs but also librarians, instructional coordinators, counselors, social workers, school psychologists, speech therapists, other support staff and even loan counselors for our indebted college students. It is a comprehensive total. About 3.6 percent of the 8.1 million jobs have managerial classifications.

Still, despite the problems, we have to like teaching. Teaching allows for personal growth, creativity, and the opportunity to shape the future. It assures professional jobs in every state and every community all over the country. With a 115.3 million service jobs to divvy up, educational employment is a big help, but those 14.6 million jobs come to 12.7 percent of all service employment. Education employment in the 1990’s grew faster than the national average so education employment will get relatively more important, but we need more service jobs, lots of them. After subtracting the 2012 education jobs we have 100.7 million service jobs to fill.

Thursday, April 5, 2007

Technorati claim

Technorati Profile

Service Jobs - America’s Service Economy

Introduction -- revised for 2012 data

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports industry data by North American Industry Classification (NAICS) and occupational data by the Standard Occupational Classifications (SOC). The connection between employment by industry and employment by occupation is maintained with BLS staffing patterns, i.e. what percentage of an industry’s employment uses this or that occupation.

Maintaining employment data by industry and by occupation allows a break down of new jobs in a two-step process. The first step breaks out jobs by industry. For example, the manufacturing industry has declining total employment. Job losses in manufacturing eliminate jobs, but especially jobs peculiar to manufacturing like engineers, machinists and tool and die makers. These jobs will decline more than other jobs because manufacturing uses a disproportionately large share of these occupations.

The second step breaks out industry jobs by occupation. For example, engineers have jobs in manufacturing, but other industries like construction and utilities also employ engineers. If these industries have increasing employment then some of the engineers leaving the manufacturing industry will find jobs in the construction or utility industries. In contrast flight attendants have few other opportunities to be flight attendants outside the air transportation industry. If the air transportation industry has fewer jobs, then flight attendants will have to find other occupations in other industries. If we want to know what happens to people losing jobs when their industries decline, we can follow the path of jobs by industry and then to occupations.

Total employment needs to grow as the population grows in order for Americans to find jobs and support themselves. Total employment at establishments had a monthly average of 133.7 million in 2012, which are 24.2 million more jobs than 1990 when establishment employment totaled 109.5 million. Establishments are individual places with a separate address. In this way an establishment is also a firm if it has one location. For firms with two or more locations data is reported from its separate establishments.

The first and broadest breakdown of establishment employment splits jobs between goods-producing and service providing. Goods-producing industries include mining along with logging and natural resources, construction and manufacturing. Service providing has everything else including government. Good production is 18.4 million jobs, but only 13.8 percent of establishment jobs, while service production has 115.3 million jobs with 86.2 percent of employment.

The service industry is frequently used as a generic term in the popular press. Since manufacturing employment drops year after year, down 5.8 million from 1990 with an ever smaller share of jobs, articles discussing the demise of manufacturing employment are common news stories. Often near the end of the story the depressing tone of the article is transformed with "But jobs are expanding in service industries.” Service employment is offered as a savior for the unemployed and the down and out. Since Americans require jobs to survive we better hope this idea is correct. So far it is correct; America is inventing new jobs all the time. However, service industry and service industry employment are not generic terms. With the new jobs there is new data to go with the new categories. What we are doing in these ever growing service industries can be described in clear detail. We have 115.3 million services jobs to divvy up. Wow! Give us service.

Sunday, April 1, 2007

Free Trade, NAFTA and the Saga of North Carolina

Those on the side of free trade support their case with logical reasoning. Roughly speaking they argue free trade benefits everyone because American industry has rising productivity where increasing efficiency saves many hours of labor, which can be released to other uses. When economists see growth in output in manufacturing with falling employment they say "Wow, this is terrific because the economy is producing more goods with less hours of work and now other people can be released for jobs producing more goods and services and growth in other industries.” Economists see these changes as a natural flow of reallocation and a movement toward efficiency.

When the debate was ragging over NAFTA, free traders discussed prospective investments. They said America has employment in apparel manufacturing, which is a labor intensive and low productivity industry. By comparison Mexico has had close to a quarter of its labor force working in inefficient low productivity agriculture. They predicted unemployed Mexicans would be able to shift to apparel manufacturing or other manufacturing, while Americans leaving apparel jobs would work in other expanding industries in the United States. There were confident and made predictions for more jobs on both sides of the border. Free traders admitted less restrictive trading between the United States and Mexico could be a difficult transition, but they have faith free trade would mean growth and jobs for all.

Over at the Bureau of Labor Statistics the hard working folks produce labor data within the North American Industry Classification System, a.k.a. NAICS. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) defines a carefully crafted set of industry sectors and sub-sectors, which has sector divisions for agriculture, manufacturing, trade, transportation and others; 20 sectors in all. They publish United States employment data by industry within the NAICS sectors and also many sub sectors, industry groups and industries, over 1000 data series in all. Their data help us compare faith with reality.

Data reported within the North American Industry Classification System includes three Textile industry categories: Textile Mills, Textile Product Mills, and Apparel Manufacturing. These three categories have 23 industry groups and industries. In 1990, there were 1.63 million US jobs in those 3 categories. By 2006 the total was down to 594 thousand, a loss of 1 million and 40 thousand jobs. Every single one of the 23 industries mentioned above lost jobs. Fiber, yarn and thread mills lost 54 thousand jobs. Carpet and rug mills along with mills making curtains, linens, bedspreads, sheets, towels, canvas and canvas bags, all down. Knitting mills making hosiery, socks, underwear and nightwear along with mills in cut and sew apparel for men, boys, women, girls and infants, all down. Apparel went from 932 thousand jobs in 1990 to 238 thousand jobs left in 2006. That does sound like a difficult transition.

The Jobs of North Carolina

The jobs above are for the whole country, but North Carolina has been a major employer in textiles and apparel. In 1990 North Carolina had the highest percentage of manufacturing employment for any state, 26.4 percent. That was 824 thousand manufacturing jobs out of total establishment employment of 3.1 million. Michigan and Ohio, both well known manufacturing states, had lower percentages, 21.1 percent and 21.8 percent respectively. The 1990 North Carolina manufacturing base had a broad range of industries with thousands of jobs in wood products manufacturing including furniture, but also fabricated metal products, machinery, electronics, electrical equipment and transportation equipment. Even more jobs were in non-durable goods like food processing and chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing in addition to textiles and apparel.

By 2006, manufacturing jobs dropped to 553 thousand, a loss of 271 thousand jobs. Total employment for Textile Mills, Textile Product Mills, and Apparel Mills in North Carolina was down from 286 thousand to 81 thousand, a loss of 205 thousand jobs. That is why I am thinking if we want to know more about free trade and jobs we should look at the saga of North Carolina.

By 2006 North Carolina’s manufacturing employment dropped from 26.4 percent to 13.8 percent of statewide establishment employment, the biggest percentage drop in manufacturing employment for any state. Despite the manufacturing job losses North Carolina establishment employment went up by 898 thousand jobs in the 1990-2006 period. The increase occurred during the same period that manufacturing employment went down 271 thousand jobs with another 14 thousand jobs lost in utilities and agriculture. In that way new jobs have to replace lost manufacturing, utility and agriculture jobs before there can be more jobs. So even though there are 898 million more establishment jobs now than in 1990 there are 1.18 million more service jobs in North Carolina.

Since free trade advocates admitted there would be manufacturing job losses states like North Carolina would not be happy to hear about, they predicted there would be new investment and expansion into sectors with higher productivity. In effect they said textile and apparel jobs were expendable because they were low paid anyway and new jobs would open up to replace the old ones. If we just count the jobs they look right in their predictions, but counting jobs implies that one job is the same as another. In the saga of North Carolina the new 1.18 million jobs look very different from the old ones. Remember that number, 1.18 million.

North Carolina’s Big Four in New Jobs

Start with government because the biggest expansion of jobs in North Carolina from 1990 to 2006 came in government, but not the federal government. State and Local government created 179 thousand new jobs, half of them in education. If we add the new jobs at private schools and colleges the total comes to 222 thousand new jobs. Since 1990, North Carolina state and local employment and all categories of public and private education have been growing faster than the statewide average. Both government and education make up a growing percentage of North Carolina jobs, which is important given NAFTA and the loss of manufacturing jobs.

Despite all the nasty and derogatory things said about government, governments create transactions and employment. Take the auto safety inspection. In North Carolina it is $18.20 for a yearly inspection. On the Bureau of Transportation website, they report just over 6 million vehicle registrations for North Carolina. At two inspections per hour that creates more than 1500 statewide jobs, assuming an 8-hour workday five days a week. It’s just a yearly inspection. How about twice a year? How about four times a year? There was a time when people did their own car inspections. Checking your lights, your wipers, your tires, are among life's easier do it yourself jobs. No more in North Carolina. The legislature created transactions and some jobs.
Government employment is already large. Actually 22 million work as employees on government payrolls nationwide. There are 2.7 million in the federal government, 5.1 million in state government, nearly 14.2 million in local government including education and government hospitals. In North Carolina 675 thousand work in government, 16.8 percent of statewide employment. Still it undercounts employment that is the result of government action such as service station employees who do auto inspections since they are on private payrolls even though they are doing the government's work. The terms government contractor, outsourcing and privatization all connote private businesses, but they are private businesses doing government funded or government sponsored work.

In education, we hear complaints in the popular media about failing schools and the need for more accountability. Complaints help bring pressure for smaller classes, all day kindergarten, special education, counselors, and testing. Better education coincidentally means more jobs.

Government and education took first place for job gains, but then comes health care with 218 thousand new jobs for North Carolina. The new health care jobs are in physician’s services, hospital care and nursing and residential care facilities. The total includes 41 thousand social service jobs. Many of these jobs are counselor and social work jobs, which can be attached to the health care industry, although they are also in government and sometimes private firms.

When people think about health care they typically think about doctors and nurses. At the BLS though, doctors and nurses are part of a category of 52 health practitioner occupations, which also include pharmacists, therapists, and a variety of health technologists and technicians. Another occupational category called healthcare support has 15 additional jobs and all of them have aide, assistant or attendant in their job title. Health care practitioners and health care support occupations are two of what are really three segments of employment in health care. A third segment might be called administration or overhead and there is lots of it.

If the American health care system had a history like public education it might not be as bloated with administration as it has come to be. With education people live somewhere and that somewhere is in a school district. Families with school age children send their children to the school in their district.
Americans could have universal health care. Instead we have a decentralized health care system with three large groups making transactions. On the medical side we have health care venders: hospitals, laboratories, clinics, HMO’s, PPO’s, independent practice offices, groups and associations. They do business among themselves but also with private insurance companies and patients. Medical venders send out bills and private insurance companies maintain bureaucracies to take them in.

Then we have government where the federal, state and local governments all maintain health care bureaucracies to administer Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security Disability, workmen’s compensation and the Veterans Administration. Separate programs with separate bureaucracies create lots and lots of administrative jobs. Medicaid is a federal program for the unwanted poor with federal guidelines but it is administered through 50 state bureaucracies. Medicare is administered state by state with separate administrative contractors processing claims. Medicare does not cover an entire bill so private insurance companies sell Medigap policies to millions so one hospital visit or one physicians service visit can generate two bills and brings action at many bureaucracies.

Workmen’s compensation, which is really health care for people injured on the job, operates under federal guidelines through 50 state bureaucracies, but the states allow private companies to write the insurance so it supports jobs in private companies and insurance agencies. Military veterans have a separate health bureaucracy. Disability coverage supports additional bureaucracy through the social security administration and several specialty programs.

In the national economy the health care industry supports 2.5 million office jobs as bill and account collectors, billing and posting clerks, file clerks and general office clerks. In North Carolina, it looks like 60 to 64 thousand of the 218 thousand new health care jobs will be in office work. BLS reports a decline of 15 thousand jobs for North Carolina Sewing Machine Operators, assuring some new faces to fill those office jobs.
Universal coverage would consolidate health care administration and reduce the need for the multitude of bureaucracies and the multitude of paper forms. With universal health care it is easy to imagine standard procedures and the use of unified computer billing to eliminate paper. That would be efficient. America could get rid of those costly and inefficient office jobs filing and shuffling bills, but we have to be careful about efficiency when America needs jobs. In North Carolina, they lost 271 thousand manufacturing jobs and economists and free traders think of that as an opportunity for new investment and new jobs in more efficient and productive pursuits. In North Carolina though, people know an inefficient office job is better than no job at all.

The next biggest category of North Carolina employment growth generated 125 thousand new jobs in a sector called Administrative and Support Services. In the NAICS documentation manual, administrative and support firms perform routine support activities for day-to-day operations of other businesses on a contract or fee basis. The NAICS definition does not tell us what companies in this sector are actually doing. The answer is lots of things. If I was going to work in this sector I would definitely pick a job in a travel agency. I can picture myself relaxing in a cheery office full of travel posters offering a witty patter of conversation describing sunny Caribbean tour sites. Pick your favorite! There are so many choices. Try a job in contracted office administration, facilities support services, employment placement, temporary help services, desktop publishing, word processing, telephone call centers, telephone answering services, telemarketing bureaus, copy centers, private mail centers, collection agencies, credit bureaus, repossession companies, court reporter companies, travel agencies, tour operators, convention bureau services, ticket services, investigation services, armored car services, security guards and patrol services, security systems companies, pest control companies, janitorial service companies, landscaping companies, carpet and upholstery cleaning services, chimney sweep companies, packaging and labeling services, convention and trade show organizers, and a few more, but I am out of breath.

With the decline in manufacturing from productivity increases, NAFTA and the global economy, administrative support services looks like the ideal sector for unemployed Sewing Machine Operators from North Carolina’s apparel industry. They can start a small business. Free traders sometimes speak in grandiose terms of investments in new innovations and technologies, but the administrative support services do not need much investment. A computer, a telephone, some office space should be enough to get started in many cases. Maybe a few tools: a vacuum, a feather duster, a toilet brush for the janitors; a sprayer and some chemicals for the pest control workers.

Establishments in this sector sell almost everything they do to other firms as supporting services to be carried out during a contract period. Contracts spell out performance criteria. There was a time when firms employed their own custodians and janitors. Even if starting wages were low, wages would rise with the cost of living for all employees in the company. The terms of employment were not subject to bidding and re-bidding as long as a custodian stayed with their employer.

A system of outsourcing administrative support services generates a cycle of bidding for contracts for landscaping, security services, janitorial services and others. Custodians work for contracting firms that constantly bid new contracts. Contracts tend to be one to three years, but allow cancellation on 30 days notice. It is labor intensive work. Seventy five to eighty percent of total costs come from wage costs and the contractor with the low bid is likely to be the one that pays the lowest wage.
Sometimes administrative support services do not specify outsourcing of any particular service, but people are leased as hours of work by a temporary help agency. The NAICS manual explains that temporary help establishments do not provide supervision of their employees at the clients work site. The manual explains that Professional Employer Organizations “typically acquire and lease back some or all of the employees of their clients and serve as the employer of the leased employees for payroll, benefits, and related purposes.” The arrangement makes it possible for a client to fine tune employment to the ebb and tide of business. Actually 77 thousand of North Carolina’s 125 thousand new jobs in this sector fall in this category.

Making a living in administrative support services sounds hard, but the next biggest category of new jobs may not be any easier. It is restaurants. From 1990 to 2006 North Carolina restaurant employment nearly doubled with a 111 thousand new jobs. In the Standard Occupational Classification they use for government data these jobs are called food services occupations. There are various categories of cooks, hosts, hostesses, bartenders as well as your waiter or waitress.

Cooking used to be one of America’s biggest do it yourself occupations. Everyone can stay home and cook, but more and more we go out. In the production-marketing chain of food this helps our employment and probably more than most people realize. Start on the farm and let’s count America’s farmers. Next add all the jobs in pesticide, fertilizer and agricultural chemicals, and all of the jobs in agricultural implement manufacturing. Add in the jobs at farm supply wholesalers, and farm raw material wholesalers. Then move on to food manufacturing. Add all the manufacturing jobs milling, canning, freezing, bottling, refining, slaughtering, baking, brewing, distilling, fermenting and packaging. Add them to grocery store merchant wholesaler jobs and all the jobs at grocery stores, convenience stores, liquor stores and food stores. The total comes to 6.6 million jobs.

There are 9.1 million jobs in the restaurant business including fast food outlets, bars, and caterers. The total does not include food service workers at school cafeterias, hospitals, retail stores or ball parks, museums and other recreation facilities. Add them to the total and it comes to 11.7 million food service jobs.
Worse, jobs from the farm to the supermarket continue to decline due to productivity growth and imports in the global economy. Restaurants are the only part of the food chain Americans can count on for new jobs. You may like to go to restaurants; you may need to go to restaurants, but American and North Carolina need jobs, so now you know, you must go to restaurants. It’s your civic duty. Go out often. Be kind; leave a cash tip for your waiter or waitress.

Bringing in the Exports

Remember we are looking 1.18 million new jobs in North Carolina now that we have a global economy, NAFTA and free trade. We have 676 thousand new jobs so far but we need 506 thousand more jobs. North Carolina still has a manufacturing base, but smaller by a third at least in terms of employment. Notice that many of the new jobs mentioned above are local jobs. Very likely government, education, health care, administrative support, and restaurants have North Carolina buyers and sellers. States losing their manufacturing base may need to pull inward to replace their lost manufacturing transactions. Losing manufacturing pressures North Carolina’s economic agents, be they individuals, families, business or government, to transact with each other to generate local jobs. If state and local governments will spend all their money as fast as they can and be ready to borrow and raise taxes, they can keep pumping money in the local economy and support essential job creation.

Even so a state like North Carolina must pull in some transactions from outside its borders. To buy things from out of state, things like gasoline for example, North Carolinians will have to sell something out of state, or bring in others who spend their money. States losing their manufacturing base need to bring in some exports.

The federal government helps immeasurably in the need to bring in outside money. North Carolina has only 4 thousand more federal jobs since 1990 so it is not helping much with actual jobs. Federal government jobs continue to decline modestly in most of the states. However, the Federal government brings in outside money when it pays social security to a state’s retired residents. It is not only that the state’s current retirees bring in social security money, new retirees moving to North Carolina from other states and metropolitan areas bring any pensions they might have and a capital gain from selling their over priced suburban home.
Maybe North Carolina’s new retirees like to go to restaurants and helped to create some of the above mentioned restaurant jobs. Maybe they built or remodeled a new retirement home, which helped to create some of North Carolina’s 77 thousand new construction jobs, which include 62 thousand new jobs in establishments that do the specialty trade contracting that is common in residential construction. In North Carolina they are smart enough to love the elderly, they don’t take jobs, they create jobs.

Tourism can help replace lost manufacturing too. States like North Carolina have ocean beaches and other tourist advantages. Many states promote themselves as tourist sites and if they can do it successfully they bring in outside money, which has the same effect as selling manufactured products to other states. Other states less endowed with natural beauty turn more quickly to gambling. North Carolina has apparently avoided gambling since I do not find gambling jobs in state job files, but worse job totals show only 5 thousand new jobs in traveler accommodations, RV parks and recreation camps, bed and breakfast inns and rooming and boarding houses from 1990 to 2006.

Driving through, or into, North Carolina also has a similar effect to selling manufactured goods outside the state. There were 26 thousand new jobs in transportation, which probably involve some interstate travel and bring in out of state money. Here though airline transportation jobs declined and most of the increase is from 6 thousand new trucking jobs and 10 thousand new storage and warehouse jobs.

Finance and insurance services tend to be local services, but North Carolina is home to two Charlotte based national banks: Wachovia and Bank of America. If major banks like Wachovia and Bank of America lend out of state for credit cards and other loans that suggests some of the new jobs came from selling services outside North Carolina. North Carolina has 74 thousand new jobs from management offices and finance for the 1990 to 2006 period.

Scraping out some more local jobs

In the tally of new and replacement jobs we are up to 862 thousand out of a total of 1.18 million. We have 320 thousand more jobs to catalog in the new mix of jobs now that North Carolina is losing its manufacturing base. In North Carolina the remaining tally of new and replacement jobs look primarily like local service jobs. The next biggest category of job gains in North Carolina comes in retail and wholesale trade with 108 thousand new jobs. Both wholesale and retail trade have growing employment but at growth rates below the rates for statewide and national employment. Using computer technology in trade, especially for barcodes and inventory management increases labor productivity. Retail and wholesale sales volumes per work hour are up and sometimes at rates comparable to productivity in manufacturing. Higher productivity in trade limits job growth.

Retail sales on Main Street or at the mall or shopping center support local employment because people do not drive long distances to shop. Even though many shop while traveling or on vacation, shopping at stores away from home has minimal effect on statewide retail employment. In 1990 retail jobs had 12 percent of national employment with a slow steady drop to 11.2 percent by 2006. In North Carolina it was 12.1 percent in 1990; now it is 11.2 percent. The percentage trends show the same pattern in the other 49 states and the national economy.

Because retail jobs remain around 11 to 12 percent of national and statewide employment the only way to have more retailing jobs is to have a bigger population to serve. For anyone in local government or a chamber of commerce who wants to boast local employment by luring in a big national retailer, the plan will not work. Before much time goes by the new retailer displaces existing retail jobs and its back to 11 or 12 percent. North Carolina retail jobs show the same trends as other states. Retail jobs do not grow fast enough to create their share of new jobs; other service areas have to increase faster to take up the slack.

Electronic shopping has the potential to break the link between retail jobs and the population it serves. In the national economy Internet jobs are growing but still only 241 thousand jobs out of over 15 million trade jobs. To discourage electronic shopping mall designers and owners make sure malls have more than shopping; they have restaurants, fountains, benches, movie theatres, ice rinks and health clubs. Making shopping a pleasant social experience apparently works because there is no sign of any big change in America’s shopping habits. If America takes up electronic shopping in a big way many will pay a visit to the unemployment office.

Other new jobs in North Carolina not mentioned so far continue to be in service categories, primarily local services. Professional service firms added another 82 thousand jobs and 69 thousand jobs in repair and maintenance services, personal services and some non-profit organizations.

Professional service firms have professional jobs in careers like lawyer, architect, engineer, and computer jobs. Management consulting firms, advertising firms and veterinary services are also here with a few other professional jobs among the new jobs in these sub sectors.

Lawyers help pump money into the local economy because North Carolina lawyers belong to the North Carolina bar in order to represent clients in North Carolina courts, or advise them on North Carolina law. America’s legal system with 50 state court systems helps sprinkle lawyers around the country and makes lawyer transactions local transactions.

More North Carolina engineers work in engineering firms now than 1990 but the increase offsets the decline of engineering jobs at manufacturing firms. Manufacturing firms employ many engineers, but layoffs come for them as well as production workers when manufacturing declines or plants close or move elsewhere as they did in North Carolina. Moving from a job at a manufacturing firm to an engineering firm dumps engineers into outsourcing contract arrangements so the gains in the professional sub sector cannot be viewed with too much excitement in North Carolina, although we can hope their new clients will include some of their former North Carolina employers. That would keep their transactions in the local economy.
Other service sub sectors have repair and maintenance services, personal services and some non-profit organizations. These sectors added another 69 thousand jobs by 2006. Repair and maintenance means jobs fixing cars and trucks, although there are some household appliance repair jobs and some work for business machine repair. Personal services are haircuts and beauty salons, funeral homes, dry cleaning, pet care, parking lots, photo finishing and a few others. Non-profit organizations include churches, which can be expected to keep their spending in the local economy. Other non-profits groups include civic groups like the optimists club, but also business groups like the Chamber of Commerce, and labor union locals.

North Carolina did share in some of the growth in information services jobs in publishing, communications and with more jobs at Internet Service Providers, Web Search Portals, and data processing. There are 21 thousand more jobs in these sectors than 1990, but all of them show a decline in employment since the 2000. The last six or seven years show declines for North Carolina, but also in national employment.
There was an increase of 19 thousand jobs in real estate and another 20 thousand jobs in entertainment and recreation. We can expect that North Carolina realty firms sell North Carolina real estate. Entertainment and recreation includes historical sites and some tourist attractions like golf courses, but recreation has lots of local service jobs at private country clubs, health clubs and fitness and recreation centers. Gambling jobs would be included here but BLS reports no jobs in North Carolina as gaming dealers or gaming supervisors so we have to feel admiration for those ethical minded North Carolinians who want to work and survive without gambling.

There we have it: North Carolina’s new jobs with NAFTA, free trade and the global economy. Government and education take the lead, with health care next followed by a smorgasbord of local services, some tourism and finance, but not manufacturing, not mining and not agriculture.

Job growth in North Carolina during a period of NAFTA free trade policies supplies politicians and the media with enough good news to let them talk like job growth is their achievement and the result of free trade and NAFTA. The evidence shows that North Carolina found jobs for itself by pulling inward and buying and selling more services from each other.

With free trade the few people left working in North Carolina’s cut and sew apparel manufacturing compete with every other cut and sew operation worldwide. They compete with low paid Chinese or Mexican cut and sew workers because politicians and free traders have a doctrine that says it is good. The evidence shows that people got jobs in local services like restaurants where it does not matter how many cooks or waiters there are in China, or Mexico or anywhere else.

North Carolina still has a base of 553 thousand manufacturing jobs, despite 16 years of decline. Now that we know how North Carolina tied itself in knots replacing the 271 thousand jobs already lost in manufacturing, it would be a good to have manufacturing employment stabilize and stop its decline. The evidence shows that North Carolina lost 12 thousand manufacturing jobs in 2006 and lost 10 to 50 thousand jobs every year since 1995 with no sign of a high tech revolution to replace hemorrhaging textile jobs.

Several hundred years ago economist David Ricardo wrote a fine analysis of the advantages of free trade and a global economy, describing a process of specialization and division of labor that raises productivity and generates growth. We can think he might be pleased to learn today’s free traders rely on his analysis to support free trade policy. Mr. Ricardo lived in a pre-digital age before electricity, computers, robots and gigabytes of data; an age before global access to technology. We can wonder what he would think if he found so many of America’s and North Carolina’s jobs in restaurants, gambling casinos, pet care salons, fitness centers and office rigmarole. Would he deny free trade creates government taxing, borrowing and spending to keep people employed? Would he deny free trade in North Carolina creates service jobs in restaurants? Would he predict more jobs in “hi-tech” industries after 17 years of manufacturing jobs losses and 17 years of service industry gains? Would he say if free trade means more decline in manufacturing that is good for North Carolina because free trade is always the best policy? Maybe if Mr. Ricardo met the data he would take up managed trade?

Contents

Blog contents - Topics in large, bold blue, titles in Red-Italic, links in blue.
I. Working in the free-for-all
New Overtime Rules and the deceptive response New Overtime Rules and the Deceptive Response
Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association
UAW members accept revised fiat Chrysler dealUAW members accept revised fiat Chrysler deal
2014 - A Bad Year for Wages2014 - A bad year for Wages
Scott Walker, Wisconsin Unions and the Plans AheadScott Walker, Wisconsin Unions and the Plans Ahead
The Right to Work Campaign and the Open ShopThe Right to Work Campaign and the Open Shop
Unions, the Supreme Court and the Ruling in Harris v Quinn Unions, the Supreme Court and the Ruling in Harris v. Quinn
The Healthy Families Act (1,810 words) The Healthy Families Act
Unions in College Sports(1,310 words) Unions in College Sports
The UAW Election Failure (2581 words)The UAW Election Failure
Inflation and Wages for 2006 to 2012 Inflation and Wages for 2006 to 2012
The $9.00 an hour minimum The $9.00 an hour minimum
Wages and the Wal-Mart Effect (1,508 words) Wages and the Wal-Mart Effect
Where will you work in the free for all (791 words) Where will you work in the free for all
America's Jobs in a Recession America's Jobs in a Recession
Obama's failure on jobs (1084 words) Obama's Failure on Jobs
Overtime Rules(2,885 words) Overtime Rules
Minimum Wages and Work(1282 words) Minimum Wages and Work
Risk and Health Insurance (1074 words) Risk and Health Insurance
Parkinson's Law and America's Labor Markets(1391 words) Parkinson's Law and America's Labor Markets
Henry Ford and Mass Production(1265 words) Henry Ford and Mass Production
The Obama Job Plans and the Troubles Ahead Obama-job-plan-and-troubles-ahead
America's Job Market Free-for-All (5534 words) americas-job-market-free-for-all
Great Engine of Employment(2162 words) great-engine-of-employment
Great Engine of Employment-Part II(3390 words) Great-engine-of-employment-part-ii
Two Caveats in Economic Policy (1837 words) two-caveats-in-economic-policy
Circuit City Jobs (1302 words) circuit-city-jobs
White Collar Rules (772 words)
white-collar-rules

Gas and Service (333 words) gas-and-service
II. Education
The Declining Returns to College Education The Declining Returns to College Education
The Choice of a Masters Degree The Choice of a Masters Degree
The Chicago Teacher Strike The Chicago Teacher Strike
Jobs for PhD's Jobs for PhD's
Job Training and Public Policy Job Training and Public Policy
Education and Skill Categories (2443 words) education-and-skill-categories
College Tuition (735 words) college-tuition

Returns to Education(2196 words) returns-to-education
College Degree Round Up (1776 words) College-degree-round-up
III. Careers and Jobs
Jobs as Chefs Jobs as Chefs
Jobs in Public Relations Jobs in Public Relations
Jobs for EpidemiologistsJobs for Epidemiologists
Jobs for ChemistsJobs for Chemists
Jobs for AttorneysJobs for Attorneys
Jobs in Technical Writing Jobs in Technical Writing
Jobs for Pharmacy Jobs for Pharmacy
Jobs for Software Developers Jobs For Software Developers
Jobs for Librarians Jobs For Librarians
Jobs in Day Care CentersJobs in Day Care Centers
Jobs with Animals Jobs with Animals
Dietitions-Nutritionists Dietitions-Nutritionists
The Need for Job Experience The Need for Job Experience
Computer Support Specialists Computer Support Specialists
Executive Administrative Assistants Executive Administrative Assistants
Physical Therapy Physical Therapy
Social and human service assistants Social and human resource assistants
Customer Service Representative Customer Service representative
Corrections (633 words)
corrections
IV. State Job Market Analysis
Michigan Jobs 2014-2015 Michigan Jobs 2014-2015
Wisconsin Jobs for 2011 and 2010 Wisconsin Jobs for 2011 and 2010
Wisconsin Jobs and Governor Walker Wisconsin Jobs and Governor Walker
Texas Jobs Texas Jobs
Ohio Jobs and Governor Kasich (700 words) Ohio Jobs and Governor Kasich
Michigan jobs (2175 words) Michigan Jobs
Maryland and Virginia Maryland and Virginia
Free Trade, NAFTA and the Saga of North Carolina (5005 words) free-trade-nafta-and-saga-of-north carolina
V. Reviews
Vendetta Vendetta
Only One Thing Can Save Us Only One Thing Can Save Us
City of Scoundrels City of Scoundrels
Fighting Chance Fighting Chance
Death's Door Death's Door
Capital in the Twenty first Century Capital in the Twenty First Century
From the Jaws of Victory From the Jaws of Victory
Flash Boys - A Review Flash Boys - A Review
The Unwinding The Unwinding
Behind the Kitchen Door Behind the Kitchen Door
the Signal and the Noise The Signal and the Noise
Minimum Wages - a Review Minimum Wages - a Review
The End of Men and the Rise of Women The End of Men and the Rise of Women
The Benefit and The Burden The Benefit and The Burden
The New Geography of Jobs The New Geography of Jobs
Detropia Detropia
There is Power in a Union(1488 words) There is Power in a Union
A Presidency in Peril(864 words) A Presidency in Peril
The Big Short (1275 words) The Big Short
Can They Do That?(1068 words) Can They Do That?
Depression Economics (1099 words) Depression Economics
SnowBall (950 words) SnowBall
How the Crash will Reshape America Reshape America
Generation Debt (749 words) generation-debt
Blinder's Torment (1045 words) blinders-torment
Wealth and Democracy(1283 words wealth-and-democracy
Kelloggs 6 Hour Day (1684 words) kelloggs-6-hour-day
Three Billion Capitalists (997 words) Three-billion-capitalists
The Big Squeeze(1,127 words) big-squeeze
The Age of Turbulence (1394 words) Age-of-turbulence
High Wire (1032 words) high-wire
VI. SHORTIES
Oklahoma Republicans cut School Budgets Oklahoma Republicans cut School Budgets
Jobs and Affordable Care Repeal Jobs and Affordable Care Repeal
Retail Retrenchments Retail Retrenchments
Doctrinaire Paul Ryan - True Believer Doctrinaire Paul Ryan - True Believer
The Trump Job Fantasies The Trump Job Fantasies
Behold Mr. Puzder, Secretary of Labor Behold Mr. Puzder, Secretary of Labor
History, Politics, the working class, and the vote for 2016 History, Politics, the working class, and the vote for 2016
Middle Class, Working Class and American Politics Middle Class, Working Class and American Politics
Donald Trump on Coal Mining Donald Trump on Coal Mining
Taxes, Preferences and PrivilegesTaxes, preferences and privileges
Ted Cruz, Donald Trump the Keys to the White HouseTed Cruz, Donald Trump the Keys to the White House
Millenials Weary from OverworkMillenials Weary from Overwork
Sharing Salary InformationSharing Salary Information
The IRS and Ted CruzThe IRS and Ted Cruz
Be a millionaire Be a Millionaire
Needless Markup Needless Markup
The Gamblers Dilemma The Gamblers Dilemma
Free Speech, Picketing, bribery and the McCutcheon CaseFree Speech, Picketing, bribery and the McCutcheon Case
The $10.10 Minimum Wage The $10.10 Minimum
Toll lane Finance Toll lane Finance
Bankruptcy in Detroit Do not be fooled Bankruptcy in Detroit Do not be Fooled
Earning Tips at the Sub Minimum Wage Earning Tips at the Sub Minimum Wage
Mr. Boehner and the Debt Ceiling Mr. Boehner and the Debt Ceiling
A Walmart Minimum Wage A Walmart Minimum Wage
Federal Taxes and Horizontal Equity Federal Taxes and Horizontal Equity
A Shortage of Manufacturing Skills? A Shortage of Manufacturing Skills?
Some Flaws in Health Care Some Flaws in Health Care
Unemployment Benefits in North Carolina Unemployment Benefits in North Carolina
Virginia Money Virginia Money
Taxes and Entitlements Taxes and Entitlements
Fiscal Cliff and Social Security Fiscal Cliff and Social Security
The Follies of Gold The Follies of Gold
The Depressing Effects of Inequality The Depressing Effects of Inequality
Cheap Labor - Down on the Farm Cheap Labor - Down on the Farm
The Revolt of the Rank and File The Revolt of the Rank and File
Candidate Cain and the economics of restaurantsCandidate Cain and the econonmics of restaurants
Boehner vs. Bush on Jobs Boehner vs. Bush on Jobs
Health Care and Choice Health Care and Choice
Replacement Jobs for Manufacturing Replacement Jobs for Manufacturing
Banks and Favors Banks and Favors
Unemployment Unemployment
Value and Work Value and Work
Student Aid and Tuition Student Aid and Tuition
Jobs and Deficits Jobs and Deficits
The Estate Tax The Estate Tax
Financial Reform Financial Reform
Jobs and Surplus Jobs and Surplus
Wages and Skills Wages and Skills
Do it yourself and Taxation Do it yourself and Taxation
Public Debt and Private Debt Public Debt and Private Debt
Transportation and Free Enterprise Transportation and Free Enterprise
Retail Costs and Manufacturing Retail Costs and Manufacturing
Health Care and Inequality Health Care and Inequality
Gambling and Taxes Gambling and Taxes
Telecommuting and Green Jobs Telecommuting and Green Jobs
Banks and Hedge Funds Banks and Hedge funds
Thoughts on Used Cars Thoughts on Used Cars
Michigan and the Knowledge Economy Michigan and the knowledge Economy
Health Care and Doctors Health Care and Doctors
Taxes and Health Care Reform Taxes and Health Care Reform
Productivity and Jobs Productivity and Jobs
The Health of Social Security The Health of Social Security
Computer Billing in the Health Care Industry Computer Billing in the Health Care Industry
Banks and Nationalization Banks and Nationalization
Banks and Bailouts Banks and Bailouts
Nurses Nurses
Recession Sends Lawyers Home Recession Sends Lawyers Home
Savings and layoffs Savings and layoffs
Bernard Madoff meet Charles Ponzi Bernard-Madoff-meet-Charles-Ponzi
T-Bills T Bills
Credit Deployment Credit Deployment
Credit Ratings Credit Ratings
Circuit City JobsCircuit City Jobs
Mr. Greenspan Talks mr-greenspan-talks
1929 meet 2008 1929-meet-2008
Dividends and Taxes Dividends-and-taxes
Bailout Bailout
Government Spending and Jobs Government-spending-and-jobs
Consumers Trading Down Consumers-trading-down
Investing In Education Investing-in-education
Curbing Illegal Immigrants curbing-illegal-immigrants
Michigan Jobs michigan-jobs
pitching to work pitching-to-win
bored at work bored-at-work
A Job for You job-for-you
VII. Forecasts Reports
Labor market Forecast 2014Labor Market Forecast 2014
A 2013 Job Review A 2013 Job Review
Labor Market Forecasts labor-market-forecast
Ten Year Change Forecast ten-year-change-report

College Job Review College Job Review